Addressing the Modern Refugee Crisis in the US: Policies and Solutions

Social Justice Policy Brief #157 | By: Inijah Quadri| February 23, 2024
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The United States has long been a beacon of hope for refugees fleeing persecution, war, and violence. The modern refugee crisis, characterized by an unprecedented number of displaced individuals globally, presents complex challenges that require nuanced, humane, and effective policy responses.

Before delving into the complexities of the U.S. response to the refugee crisis, it is crucial to clarify the terminology used in this discourse. The term ‘refugees’ refers to individuals who are forced to flee their country due to persecution, war, or violence and have been recognized under international law. ‘Migrants’, on the other hand, can encompass a broader category of people on the move, not necessarily compelled by immediate threats but often seeking better economic opportunities. ‘Asylum seekers’ are individuals who seek international protection from dangers in their home country but whose claim for refugee status has not yet been determined. Each group faces distinct legal and procedural challenges in their quest for safety and stability.

In discussing the modern crisis, it’s essential to recognize the different circumstances under which individuals seek refuge in the U.S. Asylum seekers, for example, are individuals who flee persecution based on race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. On the other hand, some refugees are escaping extreme poverty, though this category often faces more challenges in gaining asylum. Understanding these distinctions is crucial for developing policies that address the specific needs and rights of each group.

This article examines the current state of the overall land border refugee crisis in the U.S., exploring policy challenges and proposing solutions aimed at improving the resettlement process, ensuring fair treatment of asylum seekers, and leveraging international cooperation to address root causes of displacement.


The number of forcibly displaced people worldwide reaches new highs every year, with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reporting millions in need of resettlement. However, the U.S. has seen a fluctuation in its refugee admission caps, with recent years witnessing significant reductions. This trend raises concerns about the nation’s commitment to providing sanctuary for the world’s most vulnerable.

To accurately assess the scale of the refugee crisis and the U.S.’s response, recent data sheds light on the numbers. As of the latest reports, more than a million refugees and migrants enter the United States on an annual basis, with that number rising to well over 1.5 million in 2023 alone. The majority of these individuals come from Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Cuba, India, Honduras and China, reflecting the global patterns of displacement, persecution and poverty. Of those seeking entry, approximately about 60,000 were accepted for resettlement last year, while the others are turned back, or are simply unnaccounted for. These figures underscore the challenges and limitations of the current U.S. immigration system in addressing the needs of displaced individuals.

One of the critical challenges in addressing the refugee crisis is the lengthy and complex resettlement process. Refugees undergo rigorous security checks and screenings, often taking years before being admitted to the U.S. This delay exacerbates the hardships faced by refugees, leaving them in limbo and uncertain of their futures. Additionally, the treatment of asylum seekers at the U.S. borders has sparked national and international debate.

After examining the treatment of asylum seekers and the controversies surrounding policies like family separation and the Remain in Mexico policy, both enacted during the Trump administration, it’s crucial to consider the broader debate on border control. The argument for closing the border often centers on national security and the management of resources. However, opponents argue that such measures ignore humanitarian obligations and can damage the U.S.’s international reputation. Recently, a bipartisan bill aimed at addressing some of these concerns passed the Senate. This legislation proposed a balanced approach to border security and refugee admissions, reflecting a rare moment of consensus. Unfortunately, it was vetoed in the House, a decision influenced by former President Trump’s advocacy for stricter border controls. Trump’s stance emphasizes the need for more stringent measures to curb illegal immigration, suggesting a fundamental disagreement on the role of the U.S. as a refuge.

Proposed Solutions:

1. Increase Refugee Admission Caps: The U.S. should commit to increasing its refugee admission caps to reflect the scale of the global crisis. A return to historical averages would signal the U.S.’s renewed commitment to refugee protection and resettlement.

2. Streamline the Resettlement Process: Reducing the time it takes for refugees to be resettled requires improving the efficiency of screening processes without compromising security. As we propose increasing refugee admissions and streamlining the resettlement process, it’s important to address the resources required for such efforts. The federal government plays a primary role in funding and coordinating resettlement programs, but state and city governments often bear the brunt of direct support services. This includes housing, education, and healthcare for refugees. The growing number of refugees has put additional pressure on local communities, highlighting the need for a more equitable distribution of resources and responsibilities. Enhanced federal support and clear guidelines can help ensure that refugees are resettled in communities equipped to support them, facilitating better integration and self-reliance. The U.S. government can also invest in technology and increase staffing to process applications more quickly.

3. End Harmful Border Policies: Policies that undermine the rights and dignity of asylum seekers should be revised or ended, including those at the Texas border where Governor Greg Abbott’s controversial measures have sparked debate. The U.S. should ensure that its practices, especially in contentious areas like Texas, align with international law and the principles of humanitarian protection.

4. Support Integration and Self-Reliance: Providing refugees with access to education, employment, and health services upon arrival supports their integration and self-reliance. Programs that facilitate language learning, job training, and community engagement are crucial for successful resettlement. Addressing the U.S. labor market’s needs presents an opportunity to challenge misconceptions about refugees and job competition. Many sectors, including agriculture, healthcare, and technology, face significant labor shortages that refugees can help fill. This contribution not only aids in their integration and self-reliance but also supports the U.S. economy. It’s a common misconception that refugees take jobs from American citizens. In reality, they often take positions that are hard to fill, creating more jobs by stimulating demand and contributing to a diverse workforce. By acknowledging and leveraging this potential, and letting the populace be more aware of this, the U.S. can foster a more inclusive and productive society.

5. International Cooperation: The U.S. must work with international partners to address the root causes of displacement, such as conflict, persecution, and climate change. Investing in development and stabilization efforts in countries of origin can reduce forced displacement over time.

Addressing the modern refugee crisis in the U.S. requires a multifaceted approach that balances security concerns with humanitarian obligations. By increasing refugee admissions, streamlining the resettlement process, ensuring the fair treatment of asylum seekers, and engaging in international efforts to tackle the root causes of displacement, the U.S. can reaffirm its position as a global leader in refugee protection and resettlement.

Engagement Resources
  • UNHCR ( The UN Refugee Agency provides critical support to refugees globally and advocates for their protection and resettlement.
  • International Rescue Committee ( The IRC responds to the world’s worst humanitarian crises and helps people to survive, recover, and gain control of their future.
  • Refugee Council USA ( A coalition of U.S.-based organizations committed to refugee protection, welcome, and excellence in the U.S. refugee resettlement program.
  • American Immigration Council ( Works to strengthen America by shaping how America thinks about and acts towards immigrants and immigration.
  • Human Rights First ( An independent advocacy and action organization that challenges America to live up to its ideals, including fair treatment of asylum seekers and refugees.

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