Navigating the Complexities of Content Moderation: Strategies and Challenges in the Digital Age
Technology Brief #87 | By: Inijah Quadri | May 10, 2023
Header photo taken from: fastcompany.com
Content moderation is the process of monitoring and filtering user-generated content to ensure that it adheres to a platform’s guidelines and community standards. The rise of social media platforms and user-generated content has led to an increase in false content and misinformation, which can have significant social, political, and economic consequences. Misinformation can be intentionally created to manipulate public opinion, spread conspiracy theories, or promote divisive content. It can also arise inadvertently due to a lack of understanding or misinterpretation of facts. The challenges of content moderation include determining what constitutes harmful content, addressing the scale of misinformation, balancing freedom of expression with the need to prevent harm, and ensuring transparency and fairness in the moderation process.
According to a recent EU report, misinformation and disinformation campaigns have increased significantly over the past decade, driven by technological advances, social media platforms, and geopolitical tensions. Other studies by the MIT Media Lab and the RAND Corporation found that false news stories are 70% more likely to be retweeted than true stories, and it takes true stories about six times longer to reach 1,500 people than false stories. Yet another recent Pew Research Center survey revealed that more than half of US adults believe misinformation on social media is a major problem, and 48% believe the government should play a more significant role in addressing the issue.
Content moderation can be performed using a combination of human reviewers, automated algorithms, and user reporting. Major platforms like Facebook and Twitter have implemented various content moderation strategies, including employing thousands of human moderators, using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to detect and remove harmful content, and allowing users to report inappropriate content.
Government regulation of content moderation is another approach. For example, Germany’s Network Enforcement Act (NetzDG), implemented in 2017, requires social media platforms to remove illegal content within 24 hours of receiving a user complaint. In the European Union, the Digital Services Act (DSA), proposed in 2020 and still under negotiation, aims to establish a legal framework for regulating content moderation and holding platforms accountable for illegal content. Here in the United States, ongoing discussions revolve around potential revisions to Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, which provides immunity to platforms for user-generated content.
Case studies demonstrating different approaches to content moderation include:
a. Facebook’s Oversight Board: Established in 2018, Facebook’s Oversight Board is an independent body responsible for reviewing content moderation decisions. In January 2021, the board upheld Facebook’s decision to suspend former President Donald Trump’s account but also criticized the platform’s policies and urged for clearer guidelines.
b. Twitter’s Approach to COVID-19 Misinformation: Twitter implemented stricter content moderation policies to combat COVID-19 misinformation, including labeling misleading information, providing links to authoritative sources, and removing content that could cause direct harm. This case demonstrates the proactive steps platforms can take to combat misinformation during public health crises.
c. YouTube’s Removal of QAnon Content: In October 2020, YouTube announced a crackdown on conspiracy theory content, specifically targeting QAnon, a baseless conspiracy theory that had gained significant traction on the platform. This move highlighted the responsibility of social media platforms to curb the spread of harmful conspiracy theories.
Striking the right balance between freedom of expression and harm prevention is a complex task that requires continuous assessment and improvement. Governments, social media platforms, and stakeholders must work collaboratively to develop transparent, fair, and adaptable content moderation strategies that evolve with the ever-changing digital landscape. By fostering a culture of accountability and promoting information literacy, we can empower individuals to make informed decisions and contribute to a healthier online environment for all.
Center for Humane Technology: The Center for Humane Technology is a non-profit organization focused on addressing the societal impacts of technology, including content moderation and misinformation.
First Draft: First Draft is a non-profit organization that provides resources and training to help journalists, researchers, and civil society organizations address misinformation and disinformation.
Poynter Institute’s International Fact-Checking Network: The International Fact-Checking Network is a global coalition of fact-checking organizations that promotes best practices and high standards in fact-checking.
NewsGuard: NewsGuard is a service that rates news websites based on their reliability and transparency, helping users identify trustworthy sources and combat misinformation.
Global Disinformation Index: The Global Disinformation Index is a non-profit organization that aims to create a global benchmark for disinformation risk, helping to inform policy, investment, and platform decisions.